Zimbabwe has a heterogeneous geology and is believed to have similar terrain with that which has yielded significant resources in Australia and Canada. The country is underlain by a core Archean Basement called the Zimbabwean Craton. The craton consists of granitoids, gneisses and schists with remnants of greenstone belts. The craton is bordered by the Limpopo mobile belt to the south, the Mozambique belt to the east, the Zambezi Mobile belt to the north and the Magondi Supergroup to the north west. The craton is intruded by the north east trending Great Dyke, which is an ultramafic/mafic complex. In the north, north west and east of the country the craton is overlain by Karoo supergroup which is mainly composed of terrestrial detrital sediments which are overlain by basaltic flows. Proterozoic and Phenerozoic sedimentary basins.
The gold and base minerals are known to occur in the greenstone belts as well as the Limpopo mobile belt. The Great Dyke is host to the platinum group of minerals (PGMs). . The Magondi supergroup is known to host copper associated with calcareous materials. The granitic terrain has pegmatites that host such minerals as lithium, tantalite, mica and others. While the Karoo Suppergroup is known to host the country's coal.